Driving the Servo Motor


A servomechanism, often shortened to servo, is a closed-loop control system used to precisely control the movement of a mechanical component, such as a motor or actuator, based on feedback from sensors. This article explores the principles, components, and applications of servomechanisms, with a focus on driving the servo motor.

Principles of Operation

Servomechanisms operate on the principle of feedback control, where the system continuously compares the desired position or velocity of the mechanical component with the actual position or velocity measured by sensors. Based on this feedback, the system adjusts the motor’s output to minimize the error and maintain precise control over the mechanical motion.

Components of a Servomechanism

A typical servomechanism consists of several key components:

  1. Servo Motor: The actuator responsible for generating the desired motion. Servo motors are typically brushless DC motors known for their high torque and precise control.
  2. Feedback Sensors: Devices such as encoders or potentiometers that provide feedback on the position, velocity, or other parameters of the mechanical component.
  3. Controller: The brain of the system, which processes the feedback signals and generates control signals to adjust the motor’s output.
  4. Power Amplifier: Amplifies the control signals from the controller to drive the servo motor with sufficient power.

Driving the Servo Motor

Driving the servo motor involves sending control signals from the controller to the motor to achieve the desired motion. The controller compares the actual position or velocity feedback from the sensors with the desired setpoint and calculates the error. It then generates control signals, typically in the form of pulse-width modulation (PWM) signals, to adjust the motor’s speed and direction.

The PWM signals control the duty cycle of the voltage applied to the motor, regulating the motor’s rotational speed. By varying the duty cycle of the PWM signals, the controller can precisely control the position or velocity of the servo motor, ensuring it reaches the desired setpoint accurately.


Servomechanisms find widespread use in various industries and applications, including:

  1. Robotics: Servo motors are commonly used in robotic systems to control the movement of robotic arms, grippers, and joints with precision.
  2. Manufacturing: Servomechanisms play a vital role in automated manufacturing processes, such as CNC machining, 3D printing, and assembly lines, where precise motion control is essential.
  3. Aerospace: In aerospace applications, servomechanisms are used in flight control systems to adjust the position of control surfaces such as ailerons, elevators, and rudders.
  4. Automotive: Servo systems are employed in automotive applications for functions such as electronic power steering, throttle control, and automatic transmission shifting.
  5. Consumer Electronics: Servomechanisms are utilized in various consumer electronics devices, including cameras, drones, and home automation systems, to control pan, tilt, and zoom functions.


Servomechanisms play a critical role in modern automation and control systems, enabling precise and efficient motion control in a wide range of applications. Their ability to provide accurate positioning, rapid response, and flexibility makes them indispensable in industries ranging from manufacturing and robotics to aerospace and consumer electronics.

19:34 15 May 24
Shama ParveenShama Parveen
06:32 09 May 24
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14:54 08 May 24
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16:57 07 May 24
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